All living cells, regardless of cell type, communicate with other cells. Among the many signals expressed include the body’s need to direct and assist in response to injury, healing, repair, and regeneration. The cell signaling method is the simple packaging of signaling proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids into nano-sized, membrane-bound Extracellular Vesicle (EV) spheres about 1/1000th of a cell’s size. Once in the extracellular space, these exosome spheres can release their cargo into the surrounding cellular fluid or adhere to the recipient cell and release their therapeutic payload intracellularly. The various proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid constituents within exosomes include anti-inflammatory proteins or cytokines, various growth and angiogenesis factors, messenger RNA (mRNA) carrying the code for new protein production, or microRNA (miRNA) for cellular gene expression or silencing.

This cell–to–cell communication is called paracrine signaling and accomplishes, through the release of these packaged exosome extracellular vesicles, cellular changes for beneficial therapeutic effect. Immunomodulation, wound repair, fibrotic remodeling, angiogenesis, neovascularization, and recruitment of progenitor cells are all some of the biologic processes initiated through the release of exosomes containing various factors such as; among many others, TNF-R1, VEGF, ANG1, and IGF-1.

History About Exosomes

First discovered decades ago, exosomes can now be isolated and purified from any tissue or biological fluid, including the various organ types, bone marrow, and blood. A particular case; amniotic fluid, placental, and cord tissue, is rich in Mesenchymal stem cells (the multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types) and, as the precursor to new cell growth and differentiation, its exosomes are specific to cell repair, healing, and regeneration. Exosomes can be utilized therapeutically in injury and inflammation or areas needing regeneration, recovery, and repair.

Creating an isolated, filtered, and purified super concentrate in the billions of these specific amniotic, placental, and cord exosome vesicles requires a sophisticated and state-of-the-art lab for the exosome’s production biologic product for administration by practitioners to their patients. While not yet approved for specific conditions, physicians at the forefront of Regenerative Medicine already administer Exosome treatments off-label to their patients for wound healing and scar repair, orthopedic injury, facial aesthetics, hair restoration, and publishing a rapidly growing number of successful cases and clinical studies.

The future of Exosome treatments is unlimited. Harnessing their unique cellular signaling capability, researchers and clinicians investigate Exosome therapy in virtually all organ systems. Several varied clinical trials are already underway and are in various phases of completion, including studies in the severe inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19; orthopedic injury and treatment and repair of joints, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments; post-surgical wound healing and scar treatment and repair; nerve injury and spinal cord trauma; peripheral neuropathy and applications in many other chronic conditions such as diabetes or Alzheimer’s Disease.